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Swanton, Part Two

Powhatan

Said by Gerard to signify "falls in a current of water," and applied originally to one tribe but extended by the English to its chief Wahunsonacock, and through him to the body of tribes which came under his sway. Also called:

Sachdagugh-roonnw, Iroquois name.

Connections ~ The Powhatan belonged to the Algonquian linguistic stock, their nearest relatives probably being the Algonquian tribes of Carolina and the Conoy.

Location ~ In the tidewater section of Virginia from Potomac River to the divide between James River and Albemarle Sound, and the territory of the present eastern shore of Virginia. (See also Maryland and District of Columbia.)

Powhatan Subdivisions

Subtribes constituting this group are as follows:

  • Accohanoc, in Accomao and part of Northampton Counties, Va., and probably extending slightly into Maryland.

  • Accomac, in the southern part of Northampton County, Va.

  • Appomattoc, in Chesterfield County.

  • Arrohattoc, in Henrico County. Chesapeake, in Princess Anne County.

  • Chickahominy, on Chickahominy River.

  • Chiskiac, in York County.

  • Cuttatawomen, in King George County.

  • Kecoughtan, in Elizabeth City County.

  • Mattapony on Mattapony River.

  •  Moraughtacund, in Lancaster and Richmond Counties.

  • Mummapacune, on York River.

  • Nansemond, in Nansemond County.

  • Nantaughtacund, in Essex and Caroline Counties.

  • Onawmanient, in Westmoreland County.

  • Pamunkey, in King William County.

  • Paspahegh, in Charles City and James City Counties.

  • Pataunck, on Pamunkey River.

  • Piankatank, on Piankatank River.

  • Pissasee, in King George and Westmoreland Counties.

  • Potomac, in Stafford and King George Counties.

  • Powhatan, in Henrico County.

  • Rappahannock, in Richmond County.

  • Secacawoni, in Northumberland County.

  • Tauxenent, in Fairfax County.

  • Warrasqueoc, in Isle of Wight County.

  • Weanoe, in Charles City County.

  • Werowcomoco, in Gloucester County.

  • Wicocomoco, in Northumberland County.

  • Youghtanund, on Pamunkey River.

Powhatan Villages

  • Accohanoc, on the river of the same name in Accomac or Northampton Counties.

  • Accomac, according to Jefferson (1801), about Cheriton, on Cherrystone Inlet, Northampton County.

  • Acconoe, between Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers, in New Kent County.

  • Accoqueck, on Rappahannock River, above Secobec, in Caroline County.

  • Accossuwinck, on Pamunkey River, King William County.

  • Acquack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in Caroline County.

  • Appamattoc, on the site of Bermuda Hundred, in Prince George County.

  • Appocant, on the north bank of Chickahominy River, in New Kent County.

  • Arrohattoc, in Henrico County on the James River, 12 miles below the falls at Richmond.

  • Askakep, near Pamunkey River in New Kent County.

  • Assaomeck, near Alexandria.

  • Assuweska, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County.

  • Attamtuck, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers in New Kent County.

  • Aubomesk, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County.

  • Aureuapeugh, on Rappahannock River in Essex County.

  • Cantaunkack, on York River in Gloucester County.

  • Capahowasic, about Cappahosic in Gloucester County.

  • Cattachiptico, on Pamunkey River in King William County.

  • Cawwontoil, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Chawopo, at the mouth of

  • Chipoak Creek, Surry County.

  • Checopissowo, on Rappahannock River above Tobacco Greek, in Caroline County.

  • Chesakawon, above the mouth of Corotoman River, in Lancaster County.

  • Chesapeake, according to Jefferson on Linnhaven River in Princess Anne County a small stream flowing north into Chesapeake Bay.

  • Chiconessex, about Wiseville, in Accomac County.

  • Chincoteague, about Chincoteague Inlet, in Accomac County.

  • Chiskiac, on the south side of York River, about 10 miles below the junction of the Mattapony and Pamunkey.

  • Cinquack, near Smiths Point on the Potomac, in Northumberland County.

  • Cinquoteek, in the fork of Mattapony and Pamunkey Rivers, in King William County.

  • Cuttatawomen, (1) on the Rappahannock River at Corotoman River in Lancaster County; (2) about Lamb Creek on the Rappahannock, in King George County.

  • Gangasco, near Eastville, in Northampton County.

  • Kapawnich, on the north bank of the Rappahannock, about Corotoman River in Lancaster County.

  • Kerahocak, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in King George County.

  • Kiequotank, on the eastern shore of Accomac County, north of Metomkin.

  • Kupkipcock, on Parnunkey River in King William County.

  • Machapunga, (l) in Northampton County; (2) on Potomac River.

  • Mamanahunt, on Chickahominy River, in Charles City County.

  • Mamanassy, at the junction of Pamunkey and Mattapony Rivers in King and Queen County.

  • Mangoraca, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Richmond County.

  • Mantoughquemec, on Nansemond River, in Nansemond County.

  • Martoughquaunk, on Mattapony River in Caroline County.

  • Massawoteck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.

  • Matchopick, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Matchut, on Pamunkey River, in New Kent County.

  • Mathomauk, on the west bank of James River, in Isle of Wight County.

  • Matomkin, about Metomkin Inlet in Accomac County.

  • Mattacock, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.

  • Mattacunt, on the south side of Potomac River in King George County.

  • Mattanock, on the west side of Nansemond River, near its mouth, in Nansemond County.

  • Maysonec, on the north bank of the Chickahominy in New Kent County.

  • Menacupunt, on Pamunkey River, in King William County.

  • Menaskunt, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Meyascosic, on the north side of James River in Charles City County.

  • Mohominge, near the falls of James River, in Richmond County.

  • Mokete, on Warrasqueoc Creek, in Isle of Wight County.

  • Moraughtacund, near the mouth of Moratico River in Richmond County.

  • Mouanast, on the north bank of Rappahannock River, in King George County.

  • Mutchut, on the north bank of the Mattapony River in King and Queen County.

  • Muttamussinsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County.

  • Myghtuckpassu, on the south bank of Mattapony River in King William County.

  • Namassingakent, on the south bank of Potomac River in Fairfax County.

  • Nameroughquena, on the south bank of the Potomac River in Alexandria County, opposite Washington, D. C.

  • Nansemond, probably about Chuckatuck in Nansemond County.

  • Nantapoyac, on the south bank of James River in Surry County.

  • Nantaughtacund, on the south side of the Rappahannock River in either Essex County or Caroline County.

  • Nawacaten, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Nawnautough, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Nechanicok, on the south bank of the Chickahominy in the lower part of Henrico County.

  • Nepawtacum, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in Lancaster County. Onancock, near Onancock in Accomac County.

  • Onawrnanient, probably on Nominy Bay, in Westmoreland County.

  • Opiscopank, on the south bank of the Rappahannock River in Middlesex County.

  • Oquomock, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Orapaks, in New Kent County, between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers.

  • Ottachugh, on the north bank of the Rappahannock River in Lancaster County.

  • Ozatawomen, on the south bank of the Potomac River in King George County.

  • Ozenic, on Chickahominy River in New Kent County.

  • Pamawauk, perhaps identical with Pamunkey.

  • Pamuncoroy, on the south bank of Pamunkey River in New Kent County. P

  • amunkey, probably near West Point in King William County. Papiscone, on the north bank of the Rappahannock in King George County.

  • Pasaugtacock, on the north bank of York River in King and Queen County.

  • Paspahegh, (1) on the south bank of Chickahominy River in Charles City County; (2) on the north bank of James River in Charles City County.

  • Passaunkack, on the south bank of Mattapony River in the northwestern part of King William County.

  • Pastanza, on or near Potomac River, possibly on Aquia Creek, in Stafford County.

  • Pawcocomac, on the north bank of Rappahannock River at the mouth of the Corotoman in Lancaster County.

  • Pecearecamek, an Indian settlement reported on the southern Virginia border, perhaps mythical. Pemacocack, on the west bank of Potomac River in Prince William County about 30 miles below Alexandria.

  • Piankatank, on Piankatank River in Middlesex County.

  • Pissacoac, On the north bank of Rappahannock River above Leedstown in Westmoreland County.

  • Poruptanck, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County.

  • Potaucac, in New Kent County between the Chickahominy and Pamunkey Rivers. Potomac, about 55 miles in a straight line from Chesapeake Bay, on a peninsula in what is now Stafford County, formed by Potomac River and Potomac Creek.

  •  Powcomonet, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County. Powhatan, on the north bank of James River at the falls on ground now forming an eastern suburb of Richmond.

  • Poyektauk, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Poykemkack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Pungoteque, in Accomac County, probably near Metomkin Inlet. Quackcohowaon, on the south bank of the Mattapony in King William County.

  • Quioucohanock, probably on an eminence now called Wharf Bluff just east of Upper Chipoak Creek in Surry County.

  • Quiyough, on the south bank of Aquia Creek near its mouth, in Stafford County. Rappahannock, at the mouth of a creek on Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Rickahake, probably in Norfolk County. Righkahauk, on the west bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County.

  • Ritanoe, probably Powhatan, in Virginia or North Carolina. Roscows, in Elizabeth City County.

  • Secacawoni, at the mouth of Coan Creek on the south bank of the Potomac in Northumberland County.

  • Secobeck, on the south bank of Rappahannock River in Caroline County.

  • Shamnpa, on Pamunkey or York River.

  • Sockobeck, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.

  • Tantucquask, on Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Tauxenent, about Mount Vernon in Fairfax County.

  • Teracosick, on the west bank of Nansemond River in Nansemond County.

  • Utenstank, on the north bank of Mattapony River in Caroline County.

  • Uttamussac, on the north bank of Pamunkey River in King William County.

  • Uttamussamacoma, on the south bank of Potomac River in Westmoreland County. Waconiask, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in King George County.

  • Warrasqueoc, on the south bank of James River at the mouth of Warrasqueoc Creek in Isle of Wight County.

  • Weanoc, below the mouth of Appamattox River at the present Weyanoke in Prince George County.

  • Wecuppom, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

  • Werawahon, on the north bank of Chickahominy River in New Kent County.

  • Werowacomoco, on the north bank of York River in Gloucester County about opposite the mouth of Queen Creek.

  • Wicocomoco, at the mouth of Wicomico River in Northumberland County.

  • Winsack, on the north bank of Rappahannock River in Richmond County.

Powhatan History ~ The Powhatan were visited by some very early explorers, including probably the Cabots in 1498. Their territory was well known to the Spaniards in the latter part of the sixteenth century and a Jesuit mission was established among them in 1570 though soon extinguished by the Indians. In 1607 the Virginia colony was planted on James River and from that time on relations between the Whites and Powhatans were of the most intimate character, friendly at first, but later disturbed by the exactions of the newcomers. Peace was restored for a lime by the marriage of Powhatan's daughter Pocahontas to John Rolfe, and lasted until Powhatan's death in 1618. In 1622 Powhatan's second successor, Opechancanough, led an uprising against the colonists, as a result of which all of the White settlements except those immediately about Jamestown were destroyed. War continued until 1636 when exhaustion of both sides led to peace, but in 1644 Opechnncanough led another uprising as destructive as the first. He was captured and was killed the same year. The tribes made peace separately, and they were placed upon reservations, where they gradually dwindled away. In 1654 or 1656 the Pamunkey assisted the English in resisting an invasion of some inland people, but the allied army was severely defeated (see Manahoac). In 1675 these Indians were accused of having committed certain depredations, really caused by the Conestoga, and several unauthorized expeditions were led against them by Nathaniel Bacon. In August 1676 a great body of them gathered in a fort nenr Richmond which was carried by storm, and men, women, and children indiscriminately massacred. Peace was made with the survivors on condition that an annual tribute be paid by each village. In 1722 in a treaty made at Albany between the English nnd Iroquois, the latter agreed to cease their attacks upon the Powhatan Indians, but the Powhatans already had been greatly reduced and they continued to decline. Those on the eastern shore of Virginia, who had become very much mixed with Negroes, were driven away in 1831 during the excitement caused by the slave rising under Nat Turner. In 1785 Jefferson reported the Powhatan Indians reduced to two tribes, the Pnmunkey and Mattapony, embracing only about 15 men, but he must have overlooked great numbers of these Indians, for at the present time there are several bands, including the Chickahominy, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Mattapony, Upper Mattapony, Rappahannock, Wicocomoco, Potomac, Powhatan, and Werowocomoco (Speck, 1925).

Population ~ The Powhatan population was estimated by Mooney (1928) as 9,000 in 1600; Smith (1884) allows them 2,400 warriors; in 1669 a census gave 528 warriors or about 2,000 population, the Wicocomoco being then the largest tribe. In 1705 the Pamunkey by themselves numbered 150 souls. Jefferson in 1785 represented the two tribes which he mentions as having but 15 men; Mooney, however, believed that there must have been a population of something like 1,000 because of the number of mixed-bloods still surviving. The census of 1910 returned 115 Chickahominy and 85 Pamunkey. The United States Office of Indian Affairs Report for 1923 includes still other bands, giving in all a population of 822, and Speck (1925) gives the names of 10 bands aggregating 2,118 in 1923. The census of 1930 returned only 203 Indians from Virginia but evidently missed nearly all except the Pamunkey.

Connection in which they have become noted ~ The Powhatan Confederacy is famous as embracing those Indians among whom the first permanent English settlement in North America was made; for the personal character of its chief, Powhatan, who had conquered about 24 tribes, in addition to the 6 under him at his accession, before the appearance of the Europeans; on account of the dealings of the Whites with both Powhatan and his brother Opechancanough, as well as the massacre of the settlers by the latter in 1622 and again in 1644; and not least from the fame attached to Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas. There are post villages named Powhatan in Jefferson County, Ala.; Lawrence County, Ark.; Natchitoches Parish, La.; McDowell County, W. Va.; a county and county seat of the name in Virginia; Powhatan Point in Belmont County, Ohio; and Powhattan in Brown County, Kans.

 

Saponi

Evidently a corruption of Monasiccapano or Monasukapanough, which, as shown by Bushnell, is probably derived in part from a native term "moni-seep" signifying "shallow water." Paanese is a corruption and in no way connected with the word "Pawnee."

Connections ~ The Saponi belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest relations being the Tutelo.

Location ~ The earliest known location of the Saponi has been identified by Bushnell (1930) with high probability with "an extensive village site on the banks of the Rivanna, in Albemarle County, directly north of the University of Virginia and about one-half mile up the river from the bridge of the Southern Railway."  This was their location when, if ever, they formed a part of the Monacan Confederacy. (See also North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New York.) Villages The principal Saponi settlement usually bore the same name as the tribe or, at least, it has survived to us under that name. In 1670 Lederer reports another which he visited called Pintahae, situated not far from the main Saponi town after it had been removed to Otter Creek, southwest of the present Lynchburg (Lederer, 1912), but this was probably the Nahyssan town. History~ As first pointed out by Mooney (1895), the Saponi tribe is identical with the Monasukapanough which appears on Smith's map as though it were a town of the Monacan and may in fact have been such. Before 1670, and probably between 1650 and 1660, they moved to the southwest and probably settled on Otter Creek, as above indicated. In 1670 they were visited by Lederer in their new home and by Thomas Batts (1912) a year later. Not long afterward they and the Tutelo moved to the junction of the Staunton and Dan Rivers, where each occupied an island in Roanoke River in Mecklenburg County. This movement was to enable them to escape the attacks of the Iroquois, and for the same reason they again moved south before 1701, when Lawson (1860) found them on Yadkin River near the present site of Salisbury, N. C. Soon afterward they left this place and gravitated toward the White settlements in Virginia. They evidently crossed Roanoke River before the Tuscarora War of 1711, establishing themselves a short distance east of it and 15 miles west of the present Windsor, Bertie County, N. C. A little later they, along with the Tutelo and some other tribes, were placed by Governor Spotswood near Fort Christanna, 10 miles north of Roanoke River about the present Gholsonville, Brunswick County. The name of Sappony Creek in Dinwiddie County, dating back to 1733 at least, indicates that they sometimes extended their excursions north of Nottoway River. By the treaty of Albany (1722) the Iroquois agreed to stop incursions on the Virginia Indians and, probably about 1740, the greater part of the Saponi and the Tutelo moved north stopping for a time at Shamokin, Pa., about the site of Sunbury. One band, however, remained in the south, in Granville County, N. C., until at least 1756, when they comprised 14 men and 14 women. In 1753 the Cayuga Iroquois formally adopted this tribe and the Tutelo. Some of them remained on the upper waters of the Susquehanna in Pennsylvania until 1778, but in 1771 the principal section had their village in the territory of the Cayuga, about 2 miles south of Ithaca, N. Y. They are said to have separated from the Tutelo in 1779 at Niagara, when the latter fled to Canada, and to have become lost, but a portion, at least, were living with the Cayuga on Seneca River in Seneca County, N. Y., in 1780. Besides the Person County Indians, a band of Saponi Indians remained behind in North Carolina which seems to have fused with the Tuscarora, Meherrin, and Machapunga and gone north with them in 1802.

Population ~ The Saponi and the Tutelo are identified by Mooney (1928) as remnants of the Mannhoac and Monacan with an estimated population of 2,700 in 1600. In 1716 the Huguenot Fontaine found 200 Saponi, Manaboac, and Tutelo at Fort Christanna. In 1765, when they were living on the upper Susquehanna, the Saponi are said to have had 30 warriors. The main North Carolina band counted 20 warriors in 1761, and those in Person County, 14 men and 14 women in 1755.

Connection in which they have become noted ~ A small place called Sapona, in Davidson County, N. C., east of the Yadkin River, preserves the name of the Saponi.

 

Shakori

They seem to have lived in the State at one time. (See North Carolina.)

 

Shawnee

 Indians of this tribe were settled for a time in the Shenandoah Valley. (See Tennessee.)

Tutelo

Significance unknown but used by the Iroquois, who seem to have taken it from some southern tongue. Also called: Kattera, another form of Tutelo. Shateras, a third form of the name.

Connections ~ The Tutelo belonged to the Siouan linguistic family, their nearest connections being thc Saponi and probably the Monacan.

Location ~ The oldest known town site of the Tutelo was near Salem, Va., though the Big Sandy River at one time bore their name and may have been an earlier seat. (See also North Carolina, New York, and Pennsylvania.)

History ~ In 1671 Fallam and Batts (1912) visited the town above mentioned. Some years later the Tutelo moved to an island in Roanoke River just above the Occaneechi, but in 1701 Lawson found them still farther southwest, probably about the headwaters of the Yadkin (Lawson, 1860).  From that time forward they accompanied the Saponi until the latter tribe separated from them at Niagara as above noted. In 1771 they were settled on the east side of Cayuga Inlet about 3 miles from the south end of the lake. This village was destroyed by Sullivan in 1779, but the Tutelo continued to live among the Cayuga sufficiently apart to retain their own language until 1898, when the last individual who could speak it fluently died. A certain amount of Tutelo blood flows in the veins of some of the Iroquois. (For further information, see Swanton (1937).)

Population ~ (See Saponi.) In 1701-9, according to Lawson (1860), the Tutelo, Saponi, Keyauwee, Occaneechi, and Shakori numbered together about 750. In 1715 Governor Spotswood reported that the Indians at Fort Christanna, including the Tutelo, Saponi, Occancechi, and Manahoac, numbered 300. In 1763 the Tutelo, Saponi, Nanticoke, and Conoy had 200 men, probably less than 1,000 souls.

Connection in which they have become noted ~ The Tutelo are note- worthy chiefly as the principal body of Siouan Indians from Virginia to retain their integrity and preserve a knowledge of their langu